The spread of AI could have drastic consequences for the labor market. But these do not necessarily have to be negative – as previously feared. A new study suggests that artificial intelligence can also create new jobs and not just destroy them.
The concern that artificial intelligence will make people at least partially superfluous in the labor market is becoming increasingly widespread.
In the USA alone, according to management consultancy McKinsey, AI could force twelve million people to change careers by 2030. This is particularly true for employees in low-wage jobs, as they are up to 14 times more likely to change jobs.
But a new study by the International Labor Organization (ILO) has now found that artificial intelligence is more likely to create jobs than destroy them.
More jobs through artificial intelligence?
The International Labor Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations and, among other things, deals with the promotion of labor rights. For this study, the ILO analyzed the potential impact of AI on the quantity and quality of jobs worldwide.
According to this, artificial intelligence will supplement jobs in the future rather than destroy them. Instead of completely destroying a job, it is more likely that only “some tasks will be automated” with the help of AI.
The biggest impact of this technology may therefore not be the destruction of jobs, but rather the potential changes in the quality of jobs, particularly in terms of work intensity and autonomy.
Automation only partially affects “most jobs and industries”. These have already been supplemented rather than replaced by the use of new AI models such as ChatGPT.
Office jobs in particular will change
The use of artificial intelligence will primarily change jobs in the office, as the work here involves “the greatest technological burden”. Almost a quarter of the tasks are “highly loaded” and more than half are “medium loaded”.
However, the situation is different for managers, specialists and technicians. In these professional groups, only a “small part of the tasks” have a high technology load, a quarter are “medium-loaded”.
According to the study, there will also be “significant” differences between men and women. Accordingly, women are more likely to be affected by the potential automation of their work. The proportion is “more than twice as high” as among men. This particularly applies to high- and middle-income countries, as women here tend to work in office jobs.
These countries are particularly affected
But there are clear differences in the results of the study not only between the genders. The level of development of a country also affects the upcoming technological development.
Accordingly, in high-income countries, 5.5 percent of total employees are potentially affected by automation through technology such as artificial intelligence. In low-income countries the number is only around 0.4 percent.
However, there are hardly any differences in the potential for increase – it is almost the same in all countries. As a result, technological change “with the right policy measures” could have significant benefits for developing countries.