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What is IP address 192.168.1.1?

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There are exactly 4,294,967,296 IPv4 addresses, and some of them are more memorable than others. An IP address of a router that you are guaranteed to remember sooner or later, because it is the default IP address of most Linksys routers, is 192.168.1.1, and this article explains it all.

192.168.1.1 is the default IP address used by broadband routers and home network gateway equipment. Network administrators use this address to configure a new router, or update the settings of an existing one. The same address can also be used on commercial computer networks.

Technically, a computer, printer or other device could be programmed to use this address, but it is not recommended. This often leads to IP address conflicts. 192.168.1.1 belongs to the IP address range commonly used for private networks. The private IP address range starts with 192.168.0.0 and extends to 192.168.255.255.

What is the address 192.168.1.1 for?

It is not always necessary to know the IP address of your router. Phones and other devices can find the router by name (SSID) whenever they need to go online.

However, knowing the address becomes important when you set up a new router or troubleshoot a home network.

To connect to a router that has an IP address of 192.168.1.1, open a web browser and type:

http://192.168.1.1/

Then, log in to the router’s admin page, and access its settings. 

The procedure may fail for the following reasons:

  • The router has failed and does not respond to connections through the browser.
  • The router is configured to use a different address and not 192.168.1.1.
  • The computer and your browser were unable to join the network.

If your router has the default admin id and password (admin/admin), the router is poorly secured and anyone can log into it. Change the default administrator password to protect your router.

How to determine your router’s IP address

If the router is not configured to use 192.168.1.1, check the documentation or the manufacturer’s website (using your cell phone) to find the correct default address and try again. Other common router default addresses are 192.168.0.1 and 192.168.2.1, and there are others.

What to do when the router does not respond

Follow the suggestions below to resolve the network not responding issues. The problem could be with the router itself, the device, or the connection between the router and the software, such as cabling issues or wireless interference. 

restart the router

Unplug the router from the power outlet, wait a few minutes and plug it in again. Wait until all lights on the front of the router are on or flashing before trying to connect again.

Some routers occasionally need to be restarted after a power outage, due to incorrect startup, while the ISP’s own equipment was down.

Access ipconfig

In many cases, ISPs configure routers to use an internal network addressing scheme other than 192.168.1.x.

To find out what the default IP address of a router is, use the IPCONFIG command on a computer connected to the router, either through a wired or wireless connection.

To check the IP address

  1. Go to the  Start menu .
  2. Type  command prompt in the search bar  to display a list of possible matches.
  3. Select  Command Prompt  to launch the application.
  4. At the C: > prompt  , type  ipconfig  and press  Enter .
  5. Search for  default gateway .
  6. This gateway address is your router’s IP address.
  7. Open a browser and enter this IP address to log in to the router using the administrative ID and password.
IPConfig
IPConfig

Reset the router

If the reset doesn’t work, locate the reset button (usually on the back of the router) and press it until the router restarts. Some reset buttons are inside a small hole, and require a pin to push in. Check the manufacturer’s manual for specific instructions on resetting the router.

Also, check the documentation for the default administrative ID and password. After resetting a router, it reverts back to its default ID and password. So it’s a good idea to log in and change the administrative password to something other than the default.

Never reset a router unless you know what default administrative ID and password the router will revert to. Otherwise, you may have your router locked permanently.

It’s not always the router

Even if a router at 192.168.1.1 is working properly, there may be problems with the wireless card configuration in your computer or even problems with the ISP.

There are many reasons why you might not get a good internet connection. It’s a good idea to be methodical when you troubleshoot your Internet connection until you find the problem.

Cyberus Technology – Cyberus Technology Presents new Perspectives on Virtual Machine Introspection at Biggest German IT Security Congress

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The 17th German IT-Security Congress, organized by the Federal Office for Information Security (BSI), took place on February 2/3 and Cyberus Technology was among a select group of companies providing insights into new developments in this field. Given we are probably best known for our secure virtualization platform (SVP), we used the opportunity to highlight security-related use cases beyond virtualization’s isolation properties. Starting point were the recent Solarwinds-related security incidents that highlight the need for more checks and balances in current computer systems. How can we limit the consequences of compromised software, even when a trusted system component is affected? We presented Virtual Machine Introspection as game changing answer and talked about its basic principles in laymen’s terms. In the following you will find a condensed version of our talk.

Key Points:

  • Compromised software of the trusted compute base is a major challenge as it allows attackers to fly under the radar
  • VMI provides for defense-in-depth and enables event-driven response in a sandbox environment
  • Our microkernel-based architecture offers fine-grained access rights managements, thus limiting the consequences of vulnerabilities

SolarWinds

Most of you surely heard about the supply chain attack via SolarWinds. It is particularly fiendish because SolarWinds itself is a trusted software provider in the IT infrastructure and the company even suggested excluding its files from standard anti virus checks. This contributed to attackers operating undetected for months in their victim’s environment. The SOHO image of a solar erruption provided the background for our proposition that we need an architecture with checks and balances, such that a compromised, privileged component does not jeopardize the entire system.

Virtualization

The origins of virtualization lay, of course, in resource utilization considerations. The strong isolation properties, however, that enable operating multiple virtual machines (VMs) in parallel, also provide means for protecting defender tools. Our high level architecture diagram shows how for example intrusion detection can be shielded and hidden from an attacker by moving it outside the VM it is meant to guard.

Basic virtualization architecture

This works because access to the hardware state is at the discretion of the hypervisor layer. It can allow inspection of memory content or even CPU registers to other entities. There is a little caveat, however, because knowing the raw data values is insufficient for the discovery of abnormal behaviour. One also needs context information and we briefly touched upon the semantic gap problem, a recurring term at this year’s congress. More details on how we enable Windows analysis in a generic manner can be found in the proceedings. You can access them via the information desk at the congress’ web site.

Isolation and inspection capabilities already provide a solid foundation for security tool development. This led, for example, to sandboxing solutions in order to evaluate email attachments. There is yet another ‘I’, though, the so-called interposition. The hypervisor sits between the virtual hardware (that the legacy software stack operates on) and the real thing, much like the moon sits on the line of sight to the sun in case of a solar eclipse. Thus the hypervisor controls the interaction with the hardware which enables reactive behavior. Even relatively dumb activities like a straight forward memory analysis using YARA rules can be simplified as it can operate directly in virtual address space instead of stitching together physical memory dumps and Windows pagefile content. Once more you can find further ideas on how to use interposition in our paper.

Virtual Machine Introspection

With our talk we wanted to shed some light on the enormous potential of Virtual Machine Introspection for improving system security. Of course, it should be paired with an appropriate hypervisor architecture (cf. Hedron Hypervisor). This combination allows the implementation of the checks and balances mentioned in the introduction.

VMI as key take-away of our talk

Further Information

If you are interested in learning more, the congress’ web site, with a recorded version of our talk (in german, though) shall be accessible for another month. From there you can also download the proceedings with our paper (in english). Of course, feel free to contact me directly if you have further questions or want to learn more about Cyberus Technology’s vision with respect to VMI and IT security.

Source: https://www.cyberus-technology.de/posts/2021-02-08-sicherheitskongress.html

Building a data management platform with Azure Synapse Analytics

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About the customer:

Our customer is a wholly owned subsidiary of a large German group. With a holistic, customer-specific offer, it drives the digitization of all companies in the group with around 5,100 employees successfully, integratively and value-adding.

In order to find and implement the right solutions for the companies, the customer relies on a comprehensive, market-oriented product portfolio for topics such as the cloud, big data, Internet of Things and artificial intelligence, as well as a high level of consulting and methodological expertise.

Especially with its own ventures, the customer is in the dynamic development of open data platforms. These enable the comprehensive change from classic work and organizational structures to self-organization and company-wide, agile networks.

The challenge:

Since mid-2020, the customer has been faced with the task of developing a uniform, central and open data platform in accordance with the group’s operator specifications.

A large number of group-wide projects with requirements for high data throughput should be able to benefit from the advantages of a modern data platform within a very short time thanks to the automated provision. Thanks to the configurations specified in-house, all corporate requirements regarding security and compatibility are met in a future-proof manner and, in addition to quick and easy integration into existing systems, they offer cost savings, reliable performance and high reliability.

The implementation:

The aim of the project is to offer a group-wide and uniform data management platform for IT projects within the group. The entire infrastructure is set up according to group-wide operating specifications. The connections run mainly via the Microsoft backbone and not publicly via the Internet. The data management platform can be ordered for all IT teams via a corporate portal and is automatically made available on it.

An order process triggers a Gitlab pipeline, which uses Terraform to set up the infrastructure within 30 minutes and set the necessary authorizations and configure it.

The Microsoft Azure Cloud was chosen as the provider for building a data management platform. This option offers intelligent solutions for storing, managing and analyzing growing volumes of complex customer data.

A Data Lake Gen2 architecture is deployed for data storage, which in combination with Synapse Analytics offers a simple interface for data scientists. The processing is carried out on the underlying Apache Spark pools and SQL pools.

In the future, Synapse Analytics will ensure integration with the data catalog.

The result:

The introduction of the data management platform enables fast, barrier-free and cost-efficient access to the data collected by the group. This not only improves access to and management of the existing data catalogue, but also makes it easier to use the data profitably.

Thanks to the technical support of PROTOS Technologie GmbH, it is possible to receive the platform completely set up and preconfigured within approx. 30 minutes after ordering. The user-friendly operation reduces the inhibition threshold to work with data.

For data scientists, using Synapse Analytics brings elementary operational and organizational advantages, as it supports the integration of different systems. While the internal data integration takes over the management and administration of the data, the data connection prevents data from disappearing into the data swamp. The innovative Data Lake House paradigm is also supported by Synapse Analytics. Big Data Warehouse (Big Data SQL Pools) queries and Spark Jobs (Apache Spark) can also be run in Synapse Analytics.

As a certified HashiCorp & Microsoft Partner (Silver – Data Analytics), PROTOS Technologie GmbH has been supporting the customer since the beginning of 2020 in setting up the Azure reference architecture for the data management platform, which can be self-provisioned via a service portal. Thanks to the cooperation, the customer was able to develop a uniform, central and open data platform according to the operator specifications of the group. In addition to the consulting service, PROTOS implements the highly automated provision of the platform based on HashiCorp Terraform.

Graphics: Prosymbols, Freepik, Becris, Ralf Schmitzer from Flaticon.com

Source: https://www.protos-technologie.de/2021/11/17/aufbau-einer-data-management-platform-mit-azure-synapse-analytics/

IP loss in Windows 7 computers | CONET IT Blog

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A computer loses its DHCP IP address when no DHCP server is available in Windows 7 or Windows Vista.

Given the occasion, I would like to pass this information on to all administrators who are currently working with Windows 7 or have rolled it out.

You may have noticed that the Windows 7 computers suddenly have no or the wrong IP if the connection to the DHCP server was briefly lost. Normally, this should be corrected with the lease time, but unfortunately this is a small bug in Windows 7, which can be switched off simply by changing a RegKey and the normal behavior can be restored.

Editor’s note: The following description of the solution is largely based on a corresponding article on the Microsoft support pages, which is currently only available in English and in machine German translation and which we are therefore making available to you here in an edited German version. The link to the original entry can be found at the end of this blog entry.

Scenario:

  • You have a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) client computer running Windows Vista or later operating system.
  • The DHCP server service is not available.
  • The client computer will restart.

It can now happen that a Windows 7 client does not maintain its valid lease. As a result, you cannot reach some network resources.

Cause:

In this scenario, the computer loses the IP address that was assigned to it by the DHCP server. This occurs even if the default gateway is still available. Instead, the client computer is assigned an address using Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA) or the adapter uses the IP address given to it via the tab Alternative configuration was assigned separately.

Solution:

To resolve this issue, add a registry value to the registry that forces the client to keep its DHCP IP address even when no DHCP server is available. To do this, follow these steps:

  1. Start Registry Editor. To do this, click on Startgive regedit in the field start search and then press the Enter key.
  2. To enable this setting for all adapters, locate the following registry key (registry subkey):HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters(For Windows Vista only:) To enable this setting for only a specific adapter, locate the specific adapter registry key:HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters\Interfaces\
  3. Do you click in the menu To edit on NI and then click DWORD value.
  4. Give DontPingGateway and then press the Enter key.
  5. Do you click in the menu To edit on To change.
  6. Type in the box value1” and then click OK.
  7. Exit Registry Editor.
  8. Restart the computer.

This technique forces the client to keep its DHCP IP address even if no DHCP server is available. If you tab Alternative configuration used to change the IP address of an adapter, the IP address assigned here will be assigned to this adapter.

Please note: In Windows 7 the new registry value will not be honored if you try to set it only for a specific adapter in the following subkey:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters\Interfaces\

Link to the English KB article in Microsoft Support: http://support.microsoft.com/kb/958336/en-us


This script or this procedure has been successfully tested by the author on the platforms described here under the specified framework conditions. If you have your own experiences or questions about the application, we look forward to your comments. Disclaimer: The scripts and procedures described herein are provided “as is” and without warranty of any kind. All risks arising from the use or execution of the scripts and procedures described herein are entirely your responsibility. In no event shall CONET, our authors, or anyone else involved in providing the Content provide any support in connection with the scripts and practices described herein, nor shall they be liable for any damages (including without limitation any damages for loss of business, business failure, the loss of business information or other financial loss) arising from the use or inability to use the scripts and procedures described herein.


About the author

Dirk Machnitzke worked as an IT consultant at CONET and supported the planning, consulting, implementation and management of IT architecture solutions based on Microsoft products in the Microsoft operating environment.

Source: https://www.conet.de/blog/ip-verlust-bei-windows-7-rechnern/

Hacker attack saves 3,000 speed offenders from punishment

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The district of Ludwigslust-Parchim will not rest after a hacker attack in October 2021. As the Schwerin People’s Newspaper reported, but now 3,000 traffic offenders in the district can breathe a sigh of relief.

Speed ​​cameras can lead to lucrative additional income for cities and communities. This is also the case in the Hanseatic City of Hamburg. In 2020 alone, 17.1 million euros were taken with speed camera photos.

Hamburg is the German leader in a survey conducted by the Traffic Law Working Group of the German Lawyers’ Association among the 150 largest cities in Germany.

However, the district of Ludwigslust-Parchim was not so lucky in 2021. Because according to a report by Schwerin People’s Newspaper a hacker attack has dried up this source of income.

District Ludwigslust-Parchim: There was something

At the end of last year, the district of Ludwigslust-Parchim was in the headlines because of this hacker attack. At that time, the Corona card from the Robert Koch Institute was the focus of reporting. There was a large gap on this in northern Germany.

A white spot on the unfathomable corona map of incidences. But how did it come about? On October 15, 2021, hackers attacked the municipal IT service provider of the district. As a precaution, all systems in the district were shut down.

However, the Mecklenburg state capital Schwerin was not affected. The reason: The city uses the less common software SurvNet to transmit the number of corona cases. The district of Ludwigslust-Parchim, on the other hand, transmits the data via Sormas.

Traffic offenders should now be happy about the hack

As of 2021, there were around 4,700 permanently installed speed cameras in Germany. This means that Germany is clearly lagging behind the European leader. Because there are around 17,900 permanently installed speed cameras on Italian roads.

While the speed cameras do not have a very pleasant side effect for many drivers, the cities and municipalities should be very happy about the additional income. The district of Ludwigslust-Parchim in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania is exempt from this – at least temporarily.

Because last year’s hacker attack not only disrupted the transmission of the corona numbers. Around 3,000 speed offenders can now breathe a sigh of relief thanks to the cyber attack. In the meantime, the procedures for the respective speed camera photos have expired because the processing period has expired.

Who is behind the hacker attack?

The county was unable to process the data due to the impact of the attack. In the period between the hacker attack in mid-October and the end of 2021, the city was not able to obtain any owner queries from the Federal Motor Transport Authority.

Those responsible for the cyber attack on the district of Ludwigslust-Parchim have not yet been identified. The public prosecutor’s office in Rostock announced in November that the “Deep Blue Magic” malware was used in the attack. More is not yet known.

Also interesting:

Source: https://www.basicthinking.de/blog/2022/04/08/landkreis-ludwigslust-parchim-hackerangriff-temposuender/

200 million euros for the climate startup 1Komma5 by Philipp Schröder

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The former Tesla manager has raised a lot of money for his new climate startup. He dreams of a tech company that can compete with Elon Musk’s company.

Philipp Schröder in front of the Hamburg showroom of his startup 1Komma5: The former Tesla manager wants to promote the expansion of renewable energies.
1Komma5

He was able to do without the exhausting search for investors. This is what Philipp Schröder (38) tells in an interview with the start-up scene. The founder and former Tesla manager is well connected in the industry and maintains contacts with the richest Germans. Once again, this benefits him at his celebrated climate startup 1Komma5.

200 million euros are flowing into the young Hamburg company as part of a new round of financing. Series A is led by a group of well-known investors, including Porsche Ventures, Btov Ventures, eCapital from Münster and the French investment fund Eurazeo. Well-known family offices have also bought into Schröder’s company. The financiers include the billionaire industrialist family Haniel, the Schürfeld Group from Hamburg and Jan Klatten, ex-husband of BMW major shareholder Susanne Klatten.

“We sent 40 rejections”

Investors were very interested, says Philipp Schröder. Many would have asked proactively about joining the climate startup. “Ultimately, we accepted 20 investors and sent 40 rejections,” says the founder. Since it was founded a good year ago, 1Komma5 has expanded its investment framework to 300 million euros. Schröder does not want to comment on the rating. However, it should be in the high three-digit million range – with a lot of room for improvement, as Schröder himself emphasizes. “We founders still hold the majority of the shares with almost 60 percent.”

read too

“I don’t want Tesla in my personal life anymore”

The fact that the company raises so much money at an early stage is not only due to investors’ hopes for profits from the energy transition. 1Komma5’s plans are cost-intensive: The start-up buys up electrician companies across Europe and modernizes them using software and IT. The electricians of the start-up then take care of the installation of solar systems, electricity storage and charging stations – lean and digitally organized.

In this way, Schröder wants to advance the sluggish expansion of renewable energies. Especially in Germany. “We want to be the first energy company that really offers everything from a single source – from the solar system to the electricity tariff,” explains Schröder. Consumers’ interest in renewable energies, which is already growing, has increased significantly again recently. The reason is the war between Russia and Ukraine. “People not only want to set an example against Putin, they are above all afraid that they will soon no longer be able to pay their bills,” said Schröder.

The model is a Tesla innovation

Because of the recent sharp rise in gas and petrol prices, people are always thinking about alternative energy sources. Electric cars, solar systems and heat pumps are increasingly paying off. “Of course we also benefit from this,” says Schröder. He assumes that his company will turn over around 200 million euros this year. Twice as much as originally planned. 1Komma5 currently has 13 locations across Europe, most of them in Germany. The startup currently employs 420 people. Many of them technicians.

However, it is important for Schröder not to be understood merely as a digital workbench for the energy transition. He sees 1Komma5 as a holistic tech company. Customers should not only be able to purchase the systems directly from the startup, but also receive a special energy computer for their own four walls. Customers can use this to make the electricity they produce available to other households, for example if the full electricity storage device at home remains unused during a holiday trip.

This is controlled via a software platform that 1Komma5 is also developing. In the long term, such a decentralized power grid could emerge beyond large providers such as RWE or Eon. A concept that the electric car and solar manufacturer Tesla has been pursuing for some time with its “Autobidder” software. “Tesla is a role model, but we’re just building a manufacturer-independent platform,” says Schröder. It should therefore be possible to use devices from various manufacturers and network them with one another.

Showrooms planned in prime locations

But it will probably be a few years before that happens. Not only because, according to Schröder, there are currently several hundred thousand technicians missing in Germany alone. There is also still a great need for information on the customer side – energy crisis or not.

read too

Elon Musk no longer wants to sell cars

In order to make the concept behind 1Komma5 known to more people, Schröder relies on on-site advice. The startup is planning to open several showrooms in prime locations in major German cities. There customers should be able to test the technology of the startup. The first store near Hamburg’s well-known Jungfernstieg shopping mile is scheduled to open in July. Tesla once had a shop there in the immediate vicinity.

Source: https://www.businessinsider.de/gruenderszene/technologie/1komma5-philipp-schroeder-200-millionen-angriff-auf-tesla/

Cybersecurity – In just a few steps to more security

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With every step on the Internet, the risk to your own data security increases. Data is one of the most valuable currencies on the web. That’s why hackers do everything they can to get hold of sensitive information. They’re up to no good. In many cases, those affected lose a great deal of money and personal data that must be completely renewed. In some cases, entire networks are paralyzed. This also happens regularly to public institutions. Therefore, every user should get more security in the network in a few simple steps.
The following article provides the essential steps that significantly increase digital security.

Find the right antivirus program

Even with simple means, you can significantly increase the IT security of the systems. Companies only achieve greater security if they sensitize all employees and teams to the topic. Regular training and thorough instructions are just as important a prerequisite as functioning software. Private users and entrepreneurs alike are looking for the best antivirus program that suits their own requirements.

These programs protect against spyware, ransomware and trojans.

In doing so, they address the different dangers of infected downloads, hidden viruses on the websites and infected e-mail attachments. The hackers come up with a number of ingenious ways to get at the passwords and login data (Have hackers already found their own login data?). In some cases, they hijack the PC without a user noticing.

virus found
Find the right antivirus program – Bild: © Vector Tradition #459612836 stock.adobe.com

What does good software do?

The advanced software convinces with modern protection in all directions. Most people are looking for a coherent overall package that scores with good virus detection. Current manufacturers have developed programs that detect most of the latest threats at first go. The only difference is in terms of price.

The choice remains to take out a program as a subscription. In this case, you would transfer a fixed sum monthly and benefit from the strengths of the antivirus program.
The second option is to purchase and then download the antivirus software. The providers do not consume any resources on the PC and the programs always run in the background without slowing down the processes in the digital context.

Anyone who sends e-mails and messages with their notebook, PC, smartphone or tablet without anti-virus protection is entering a digital gamble. Accordingly, the hackers are constantly developing new malware that is able to access data in different ways and paralyze devices.

Antivirus am PC
Current manufacturers have developed programs that detect most of the latest threats at first go – Image: © nusala #481788114 stock.adobe.com

Manage passwords and design securely

Finally, there are a few key steps everyone can take to increase their own security. One of the security basics is a password. It should be at least eight or more characters in length and include both uppercase and lowercase letters. Combinations of special characters and digits are also mandatory. Then it is almost impossible for strangers to abstract the password.

A password should never be linked to your own data.

The most popular passwords are, for example, children’s birthdays, wedding anniversaries or your own birthday. Even simple mechanisms can be sufficient to avoid risks. The specifications within a company are very limited.
For very few, IT security is a priority. It is best to use a password manager because it will help you manage and generate your passwords.

Send encrypted data

Current analyzes have shown that IT security staff can significantly increase the number of e-mails, not least through encryption. The corresponding technologies pay the least attention. It is advisable to use comprehensive and general encryption. Then it makes no difference whether personal e-mails are written or documents with contracts and price lists change recipients.

Send encrypted data
Send encrypted data – Image: © momius #135298524 stock.adobe.com

Multi-factor authentication with increased security

A higher level of security is ensured by multi-factor authentication. This is used in a controlled manner because it should never stand in the way of productivity.

The big providers such as Microsoft and Apple now offer this process to significantly increase security. In sales processes in particular, it is important not to randomly enter your own credit card information or account details online. Activate the automatic connection to an unsecured WLAN network on your own PC. Only transmit your data in encrypted form and avoid dangerous and unsecured sites and online shops.

In this way, everyone can increase IT security

Nobody would leave their own door open all day at home. Unfortunately, most users are not very careful when it comes to the security of their data. This not only puts the PC and the network at risk. In the worst case, large sums of money are lost. In this way, every user should definitely use an additional antivirus program that immediately recognizes suspicious emails and websites and protects the data from the latest attacks from the network.

At the same time, it is important to select passwords that are as complicated as possible and to use different symbols. There are free tools and very practical programs that do a lot of the work for you. Investing in a good antivirus program and taking precautions for more security is nothing compared to the complete loss of sensitive data and damage to the hard drive and digital end devices.

Source: https://www.blog.de/cybersecurity-in-wenigen-schritten-zu-mehr-sicherheit/

Cyberus Technology – Cyberus Technology Gives Keynote at Symposium on the Science of Security (HotSoS)

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HoTSoS identifies itself as “research event centered on the Science of Security, which aims to address the fundamental problems of security in a principled manner.” Because the seminal Spectre paper won NSA’s Best Scientific Cybersecurity Paper Competition last year, its authors were invited to give a keynote speech at the symposium. Given that the corresponding vulnerabilities were disclosed to Intel almost 4 years ago, we (the authors) decided to take a step back and to look, in HotSoS’ spirit, at the fundamental problems. We (Cyberus Technology) feel deeply honoured that we were entrusted with delivering the talk and want to give you a sneak preview of what to expect.

  • Iron Law of processor performance
  • Memory latency, caching, and side-channels
  • Turing machine and performance increase through parallelism
  • Control flow discontinuities: branch history (BHT) and branch targets (BTB)
  • Spectre v1 (BHT) and v2 (BTB)

By the way, the conference is fully virtual this year and registration is open to everybody for free. The keynote is scheduled for April 14th, 15:35 CEST (9:35am EDT).

Update: in case you are curious about the keynote, the organisers made the slides and the recording available on the HoTSoS site. You can also go directly to YouTube to watch the video.

Fundamentals of microprocessor architecture

Like in our CPU trainings (see Cyberus consulting), the Iron Law of processor performance is the linchpin of the keynote and we will learn to appreciate cycles-per-instruction (CPI) as critical factor in judging (micro-)architecture. Many more exploits became public since the initial disclosure and “side-channel attack” is frequently used as generic label. Hence, the first part is concerned with the impact of memory latency on performance. A look into 80386’s datasheet explains how caches evolved to such critical components in modern computers and became malicious actors’ favourite pet.

However, caches merely serve as convenient tool. So the talk takes us even further back to the roots to the Turing machine as mathematical model of CPUs. Interpreting CPI as instructions-per-cycle (IPC) leads us to the intricacies of branch prediction and why Spectre is not simply the result of careless, performance-obsessed computer architects. It should also become obvious why Spectre was assigned two CVEs although there is just one branch prediction unit.

Summary slide of the talk

More information

  • Paul Mortfield & Stefano Cancelli discovered Spectre in the veil nebula which was an opportunity not to be missed
  • Backdrop for the Iron Law is the stele with the Code of Hammurabi
  • The picture of a gravitational lens shows the result of a massive object bending light rays, a kind of side channel in astronomy
  • Mars comes up in a couple of analogies throughout the talk

If you are interested in learning more, there is time for Q&A after the talk and you can contact me directly if you have further questions.

Source: https://www.cyberus-technology.de/posts/2021-04-09-hotsos-keynote.html

How Is This Serverless Tool Built? Der PROTOS CloudAdvisor

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Our serverless AWS web tool: The PROTOS technology CloudAdvisor

With the CloudAdvisor we give you the opportunity to get an assessment of your existing cloud infrastructure in 5 minutes and with just a few clicks. If you have not yet ventured into the cloud, the CloudAdvisor will help you to develop your potential and opportunities in the cloud.

At PROTOS Technologie we specialize in all things cloud. We designed the CloudAdvisor as a tool for our partners, customers and anyone interested. Naturally cloud-native, serverless and via Infrastructure-as-Code. In the following, we present our implementation of a modern web application that allows you to develop quickly, operate easily and have a high level of scalability.

functionality

However, our website or web application should not only display static content, but also have its own functionality. However, without their own compute servers that run the program code, but Serverless – only on-demand responses to request events. In the AWS Cloud, the combination of Amazon API Gatewayfor easy creation and management of RESTful-APIsand AWS Lambdathe managed service for on-demand computing power to run program code.

Lambda is at the heart and makes it possible to easily upload program code (Python, JavaScript, Go, etc.) and run it immediately (Functions-as-a-Service). The integration into the AWS environment is smooth and access is via the common authorization principle (IAM). For example, secure access to S3 buckets is guaranteed or API communication is permitted via the API gateway.

A common functionality that is often necessary is a contact form or another type of communication with the user in order to be able to send you your results at the end, as is the case with CloudAdvisor. In addition, Lambda naturally offers the possibility of integrating external APIs from CRM or marketing tools, for example, or on AWS’s own Simple E-Mail-Service (SES) to fall back. This allows the information from the contact form in the frontend to be transferred easily and securely to the Lambda function via the API gateway for executing the code using an API call to your own REST API. Data can be processed there and further services can be integrated using the AWS SDK (see e.g. boto3 for Python). This is done particularly securely by using the AWS System Mangers, which allows you to store API keys and access them securely via its parameter store. In this way, results and an e-mail are created for the users of the CloudAdvisor according to the questionnaire answers, which are sent via SES API call.

This gives you all the options to integrate a wide variety of systems and connections into your web application and to concentrate exclusively on the functionality and content. Because while you focus on your priorities, the cloud provider takes over the complete management of all services and always allows scalable and highly available access to your content.

development

But you don’t just want to make ready-made content available in the cloud, you also want to learn about the advantages modern development paradigms benefit in a cloud environment. Therefore, both the infrastructure and the content are made available via AWS developer tools and their stack for Continuous Integration and Deployment (CI / CD) unrolled. The CloudAdvisor was also launched with a DevOps Approach developed and agile to the satisfaction of our product owner after 5 sprints Scrum brought methodology to its first release.

For the development of the web application, the frontend developers have their own access (IAM role) to a AWS CodeCommit Repository, the Git-based version control service from AWS. Committing changes to the React codebase automatically creates a AWS CodePipeline triggered by the means AWS CodeBuildwhich compiles and tests the changes and first saves the artifact to an S3 bucket for subsequent deployment AWS CodeDeploy to the hosting S3 bucket.

The infrastructure management is also carried out by the backend developers via pipeline. Using the open-source tool Terraform All AWS services and configurations are delivered as Infrastructure-as-Code (IaC) declared and checked into an AWS CodeCommit repository as Terraform code. Changes trigger an AWS CodePipeline, which first tests the Terraform code with an AWS CodeBuild (terraform plan) and stores the generated artifact in the S3 bucket provided for this purpose, in order to finally carry out the changes specified in the code by executing the Terraform plan (using terraform apply). to provision the infrastructure in the AWS environment.

Source: https://www.protos-technologie.de/2021/11/25/how-is-this-tool-built-der-protos-cloudadvisor/

These are our 10 jobs of the week

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Are you looking for a new challenge? Every Friday we give you an overview of new jobs in the areas of marketing, social media and IT. All jobs, also from other tech and digital areas, can be found in our job exchange. Would you like to place a job advertisement in our job exchange? It’s easy here.

Project manager (m/f/d)

at Paul Ehrlich Institute in Long

Data & Survey Engineer – Quantitative Market Research (m/f/d)

at GIM society for innovative market research ltd in Heidelberg

IT Operations Manager (m/w/d)

at Quantum Brilliance GmbH in Stuttgart

Software developer (m/f/d)

at Medical Laser Center Lübeck GmbH in Lübeck

Software developer (f/m/d)

at Technical University of Nuremberg Georg Simon Ohm in Nürnberg

Software architect in the field of Industry 4.0 (m/f/d)

at Fraunhofer Institute for Software and Systems Technology ISST in Dortmund

Data Analyst/ Software Developer (m/w/d)

at VDI / VDE Innovation + Technik GmbH in Berlin

Senior Data Scientist (m/w/d)

at Qiagen GmbH in Hilden

Product developer – research and development (m/f/d)

at Viege GmbH and Co. KG in Attendorn

IT System Engineer Workplace/ Client Management (m/w/d)

at Hamburger Wasserwerke GmbH in Hamburg

Even more BT job recommendations

For more jobs, check out our job board, our tech and digital jobs facebook group, our BT jobs facebook page and our @BT_jobs-Twitter-Account.

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Source: https://www.basicthinking.de/blog/2022/04/08/jobs-der-woche-kw-14/

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